Oneal Morris, 32, known as "The Dutchess", allegedly sealed Shatarka Nuby's injections with super glue and cotton balls, sheriff's officials say.
Nuby suffered a "massive systemic silicone migration" from the procedure, an assistant medical examiner said.
Nuby, 31, who died in March, is believed to be one of several victims.
Her skin is said to have turned black and the injections became hard and hot before she died in March.
Nuby wrote a letter to investigators at the Department of Health and swore in a recorded statement in December that Ms Morris had given her injections about 10 times between 2007 and 2011, a court warrant says.
It is believed that Ms Morris was paid hundreds of dollars to come to Nuby's house in the town of Tallahassee and inject her buttocks, hips, thighs and breasts with an unknown substance.
Other suspected victims suffered infections and other complications after receiving injections containing bathroom caulk, cement, super glue, mineral oil and Fix-a-Flat - a product for fixing flat tyres - but only Shatarka Nuby's symptoms were fatal, report say.
Oneal Morris was arrested on Thursday at her mother's home in South Florida.
Police say Ms Morris, who was born as a man but identifies as a woman, was also arrested last autumn for practising medicine without a licence, with serious bodily injury.
They had been looking for Ms Morris for almost a year.
The charge comes two days after a woman known as the Black Madam was formally charged with murder in Philadelphia over the death of Claudia Aderotimi, a 20-year-old British tourist who received an illegal buttock-enhancing procedure.